A Meta-Analysis of Adventure Therapy Outcomes and Moderators
The first study of Daniel's PhD involved conducting a meta-analysis of studies that empirically report on participant outcomes for adventure therapy programs and examined variation in these outcomes across different types of participants and programs. 

final analysis has been completed, and the final paper has now been published. Click here for more details.
A preliminary analysis has been completed, with Results presented at the 6th International Adventure Therapy Conference (6IATC), Hruba Skala, Czech Republic (September, 2012). 

This study used the statistical technique of meta-analysis to study the impacts of participating in adventure therapy programmes. Meta-analysis is “a set of statistical methods for combining quantitative results from multiple studies to produce an overall summary of empirical knowledge on a given topic” (Little, Corcoran & Pillai, 2008, p. 1-2). The Effect Size, a value which reflects the magnitude of the treatment effect, is calculated for each study and the results from each study are then combined to compute a summary effect (Ellis, 2010).

To date, a number of meta-analyses have been published in the area of outdoor education, education, and psychotherapy (e.g., Cason & Gillis, 1994; Gillis & Speelman, 2008; Hans, 2000; Hattie et al., 1997; Wilson & Lipsey, 2000). However, these have predominantly focused on the broader field of adventure programming, with none solely focused on therapeutic programs. Although a number of unpublished adventure therapy meta-analyses exist, one remains uncompleted (Staunton, 2003), one was unable to obtain a considerable number of potential studies due to cost (Baker, 2011), and one focused specifically on Outdoor Behaviour Healthcare programs for adolescents (George, 2011).

Click here for a copy of the meta-analytic findings for individual outcomes by outcome category.

Click here for a copy of the age-based benchmarks.

Click here for a copy of the Coding Manual used to complete the meta-analysis.

Click here for a list of previous outdoor education, camping, adventure therapy and wilderness therapy meta-analyses, including abstracts, overall effects sizes and included studies.

Click here for a list of studies which met criteria for inclusion, however only provided post treatment versus control difference results.