Meta-Analysis‎ > ‎

Outdoor Education, Camping, Wilderness and Adventure Therapy Meta-Analyses

See Table 1 for a summary of overall effect sizes.
See Table 2 and click on the links for information on each meta-analysis (where available), including abstracts and included studies.

Click here for a full list of studies (where available) included in outdoor education, camping, wilderness and adventure therapy meta-analyses.
Table 1
Effects Sizes from Outdoor Education, Camping, Adventure and Wilderness Therapy Meta-analyses*
Author/YearFocusClient GroupNo. of StudiesNo. of effectsNo. of ParticipantsES Baseline (Base-pre)ES Program (Pre-Post)
ES Follow-Up (Post-FU)
Baker (2011)Adventure TherapyAll 18 67 982 - .42 -
Bedard (2003, 2004)Wilderness Therapy Juvenile Delinquents 23 37 2,042 - .45 -
Bowen & Neill (2012)Adventure TherapyAll1751,809  12,415.09.47.05
Bowen & Neill (2013)Adventure TherapyAll1972,908  17,728.09.47.03
Bunting & Donley (2002)Challenge (Ropes) CourseAll 15 na na - .55 -
Cason (1993, 1994)Adventure Education Adolescents 43 14711,238 - .31 -
George (2011)Outdoor Behavioural Healthcare All 25233  4,172 - .45 -
Gillis & Speelman (2008)Challenge (Ropes) CourseAll 44 390 2,796 - .43 -
Hans (2000)Adventure Programming (Locus of Control)All 24 30       1,632 -.38 -
Hattie et al. (1997)Outdoor EducationAll 96 1,728 12,057 -.05 .34 .17
Laidlaw (2000)Outdoor EducationAll 48 389 3,550 - .49 -
Marsh (1999)Camping (Self-Concept & Self-Esteem)Children/Adolescents 22 37 1,139 - .25 -
Stauton (2003)Adventure TherapyAll 17 95 ~1,000 - .42 -
Wilson & Lipsey (2000)Wilderness TherapyJuvenile Delinquents 22 60 ~3,000 - .18 -
*Adapted from Neill (200320082009)