Outdoor Education, Camping, Wilderness and Adventure Therapy Meta-Analyses

See Table 1 for a summary of overall effect sizes.

See Table 2 and click on the links for information on each meta-analysis (where available), including abstracts and included studies.

Click here for a full list of studies (where available) included in outdoor education, camping, wilderness and adventure therapy meta-analyses.

Table 1

Effects Sizes from Outdoor Education, Camping, Adventure and Wilderness Therapy Meta-analyses (Adapted from Neill (2003, 2008, 2009))

Links for Abstracts, Summary Information and Included Studies of Outdoor Education, Camping, Adventure and Wilderness Therapy Meta-Analyses

Baker, D. (2011). The effects of adventure and wilderness therapy: A meta-analytic review . Masters of Psychology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

Bedard, R. M. (2004). Wilderness therapy programs for juvenile delinquents: A meta-analysis . Doctor of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Bedard, R. M., Rosen, L., & Vacha-Haase, T. ( 2003 ). Wilderness therapy programs for juvenile delinquents: A meta-analysis . Journal of Therapeutic Wilderness Camping, 3 (1), 7-13.

Bowen, D. J., & Neill, J. T. (2012). Preliminary findings from a meta-analysis of adventure therapy program effects . Paper presented at the 6th International Adventure Therapy Conference, Hruba Skala, Czech Republic.

Bowen, D. J., & Neill, J. T. (2013). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy outcomes and moderators . The Open Psychology Journal, 6 . doi: 10.2174/1874350120130802001

Bunting, C. J., & Donley, J. P. (2002). Ten years of challenge course research: A review of affective outcome studies . Poster presented at the 6th Coalition for the Education in the Outdoors Research Symposium. Bradford Woods, IN.

Cason, D. R. (1993). A meta-analysis of adventure programming with adolescents . Master of Science, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA.

Cason, D. R., & Gillis, H. L. ( 1994 ). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents . Journal of Experiential Education, 17 (1), 40-47.

George, J. T. ( 2011 ). Efficacy of Outdoor Behaviour Healthcare (OBH) for adolescent populations: A meta-analysis . Doctor of Psychology, University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN.

Gillis, L. H., & Speelman, E. ( 2008 ). Are challenge (ropes) courses an effective tool? A meta-analysis . Journal of Experiential Education, 31 (2), 111-135.

Hans, T. A. ( 2000 ). A meta-analysis of the effects of adventure programming on locus of control . Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 30 (1), 33-60.

Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. ( 1997 ). Adventure education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference . Review of Educational Research, 67 (1), 43-87. doi: 10.3102/00346543067001043

Laidlaw, J. S. (2000). A meta-analysis of outdoor education programs . Doctor of Education, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO.

Marsh, P. E. ( 1999 ). What does camp do for kids? A meta-analysis of the influence of organized camping experience on the self constructs of youth . Master of Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Staunton, N. ( 2003 ). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy program outcomes . Retrieved from http://wilderdom.com/adventuretherapy/Staunton2003ATMeta-analysis_files/frame.htm

Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. ( 2000 ). Wilderness challenge programs for delinquent youth: A meta-analysis of outcome evaluations . Evaluation and Program Planning, 23 (1), 1-12.

Last Updated: 20 August 2013